Unit 1: The Health and Development of Australia’s Youth
This unit looks at health and wellbeing as a concept with varied and evolving perspectives and definitions. It takes the view that health and wellbeing are subject to a wide range of contexts and interpretations, with different meanings for different people. As a foundation to the understanding of health, students should investigate the World Health Organization’s (WHO) definition and also explore other interpretations. Wellbeing is a complex combination of all dimensions of health, characterised by an equilibrium in which the individual feels happy, healthy, capable and engaged. For the purposes of this study, students should consider wellbeing to be an implicit element of health. In this unit students identify personal perspectives and priorities relating to health and wellbeing, and enquire into factors that influence health attitudes, beliefs and practices, including among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. Students look at multiple dimensions of health and wellbeing, the complex interplay of influences on health and wellbeing and the indicators used to measure and evaluate health status. With a focus on youth, students consider their own health as individuals and as a cohort. They build health literacy through interpreting and using data, through investigating the role of food, and through extended inquiry into one youth health focus area.
Area of Study
Health perspectives and influences
This area of study takes a broad, multidimensional approach to health and wellbeing. Such an approach acknowledges that defining and measuring these concepts is complicated by a diversity of social and cultural contexts. Students consider the influence of age, culture, religion, gender and socioeconomic status on perceptions of and priorities relating to health and wellbeing. They look at measurable indicators of population health, and at data reflecting the health status of Australians. With a focus on youth, students enquire into reasons for variations and inequalities in health status, including sociocultural factors that contribute to variations in health behaviours.
Health and nutrition
This area of study explores food and nutrition as foundations for good health and wellbeing. Students investigate the roles and sources of major nutrients and the use of food selection models and other tools to promote healthy eating. They look at the health and wellbeing consequences of dietary imbalance, especially for youth, and consider the social, cultural and political factors that influence the food practices of and food choices made by youth. They develop strategies for building health literacy and evaluating nutrition information from various sources, including advertisements and social media.
Youth health and well-being
In this area of study students focus on the health and wellbeing of Australia’s youth, and conduct independent research into a selected area of interest. Students identify major health inequalities among Australia’s youth and reflect on the causes. They apply research skills to find out what young people are most focused on and concerned about with regard to health and wellbeing. Students inquire into how governments and organisations develop and implement youth health programs, and consider the use of health data and the influence of community values and expectations. Students select a particular focus area and conduct research, interpret data and draw conclusions on how the health and wellbeing of Australia’s youth can be promoted and improved.
On completion of this unit the student should be able to explain multiple dimensions of health and wellbeing, explain indicators used to measure health status and analyse factors that contribute to variations in health status of youth.On completion of this unit the student should be able to apply nutrition knowledge and tools to the selection of food and the evaluation of nutrition information.
On completion of this unit the student should be able to apply nutrition knowledge and tools to the selection of food and the evaluation of nutrition information.
On completion of this unit the student should be able to interpret data to identify key areas for improving youth health and wellbeing, and plan for action by analysing one particular area in detail.
Unit 2: Managing health and development
This unit investigates transitions in health and wellbeing, and development, from lifespan and societal perspectives. Students look at changes and expectations that are part of the progression from youth to adulthood. This unit promotes the application of health literacy skills through an examination of adulthood as a time of increasing independence and responsibility, involving the establishment of long-term relationships, possible considerations of parenthood and management of health-related milestones and changes. Students enquire into the Australian healthcare system and extend their capacity to access and analyse health information. They investigate the challenges and opportunities presented by digital media and health technologies, and consider issues surrounding the use of health data and access to quality health care.
Areas of Study
This area of study examines the developmental transitions from youth to adulthood, with a focus on expected changes, significant decisions, and protective factors, including behaviours. Students consider perceptions of what it means to be a youth and an adult and investigate the expected physical and social changes. They inquire into factors that influence both the transition from youth to adulthood and later health status. They consider the characteristics of respectful, healthy relationships. Students examine parenthood as a potential transition in life. With a focus on the influence of parents/carers and families, students investigate factors that contribute to development, health and wellbeing during the prenatal, infancy and early childhood stages of the lifespan. Health and wellbeing is considered as an intergenerational concept (that is, the health and wellbeing of one generation affects the next).
Health care in Australia
This area of study investigates the health system in Australia. Students examine the functions of various entities that play a role in our health system. They inquire into equity of access to health services, as well as the rights and responsibilities of individuals receiving care. Students research the range of health services in their communities and suggest how to improve health and wellbeing outcomes and health literacy in Australia. They explore a range of issues associated with the use of new and emerging health procedures and technologies such as reproductive technologies, artificial intelligence, robotics, nanotechnology, three-dimensional printing of body parts and use of stem cells.
On completion of this unit the student should be able to describe how to access Australia’s health system, explain how it promotes health and wellbeing in their local community, and analyse a range of issues associated with the use of new and emerging health procedures and technologies.
On completion of this unit the student should be able to explain developmental changes in the transition from youth to adulthood, analyse factors that contribute to healthy development during prenatal and early childhood stages of the lifespan and explain health and well-being as an inter-generational concept.
Unit 3: Australia’s health in a globalised world
This unit looks at health, wellbeing and illness as multidimensional, dynamic and subject to different interpretations and contexts. Students begin to explore health and wellbeing as a global concept and to take a broader approach to inquiry. As they consider the benefits of optimal health and wellbeing and its importance as an individual and a collective resource, their thinking extends to health as a universal right. Students look at the fundamental conditions required for health improvement, as stated by the World Health Organization (WHO). They use this knowledge as background to their analysis and evaluation of variations in the health status of Australians. Area of Study 2 focuses on health promotion and improvements in population health over time. Students look at various public health approaches and the interdependence of different models as they research health improvements and evaluate successful programs. While the emphasis is on the Australian health system, the progression of change in public health approaches should be seen within a global context.
Area of Study
Understanding health and well-being
This area of study explores health and wellbeing and illness as complex, dynamic and subjective concepts. While the major focus is on the health of Australians, this area of study also emphasises that Australia’s health is not isolated from the rest of the world. Students inquire into the WHO’s prerequisites for health and wellbeing and reflect on both the universality of public health goals and the increasing influence of global conditions on Australians. Students develop their understanding of the indicators used to measure and evaluate health status, and the factors that contribute to variations between population groups in Australia.
On completion of this unit the student should be able to explain changes to public health approaches, analyse improvements in population health over time and evaluate health promotion strategies.
On completion of this unit the student should be able to explain the complex, dynamic and global nature of health and wellbeing, interpret and apply Australia’s health status data and analyse variations in health status.
Unit 4: Health and human development in a global context
This unit examines health and wellbeing, and human development in a global context. Students use data to investigate health status and burden of disease in different countries, exploring factors that contribute to health inequalities between and within countries, including the physical, social and economic conditions in which people live. Students build their understanding of health in a global context through examining changes in burden of disease over time and studying the key concepts of sustainability and human development. They consider the health implications of increased globalisation and worldwide trends relating to climate change, digital technologies, world trade and the mass movement of people. Area of Study 2 looks at global action to improve health and wellbeing and human development, focusing on the United Nations’ (UN’s) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the work of the World Health Organization (WHO). Students also investigate the role of non-government organisations and Australia’s overseas aid program. Students evaluate the effectiveness of health initiatives and programs in a global context and reflect on their capacity to take action.
Areas of Study
Health and wellbeing in a global context
This area of study looks at similarities and differences in major burdens of disease in low- , middle- and highincome countries, including Australia. Students investigate a range of factors that contribute to health inequalities and study the concepts of sustainability, human development and the Human Development Index to further their understanding of health in a global context. Students consider the global reach of product marketing and inquire into the effects of particular global trends on health and wellbeing.
Health and the Sustainable Development Goals
This area of study looks at action for promoting health globally. It looks at the rationale, objectives and interdependencies of the UN’s SDGs, focusing on their promotion of health and wellbeing and human development. Students investigate the priorities and work of the WHO and evaluate Australia’s aid program and the role of non-government organisations, selecting one aid program for detailed research and analysis. They reflect on meaningful and achievable individual actions that could contribute to the work of national and international organisations that promote health and wellbeing.
On completion of this unit the student should be able to analyse similarities and differences in health status and burden of disease globally and the factors that contribute to differences in health and wellbeing.
On completion of this unit the student should be able to analyse relationships between the SDGs and their role in the promotion of health and human development, and evaluate the effectiveness of global aid programs